Genesis dan Klasifikasi Tanah Ultisol di Lahan Kering Kabupaten Aceh Besar

Raziah Raziah, Sufardi Sufardi, Teti Arabia

Abstract


Abstrak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan proses genesis dan melakukan klasifikasi tanah Ultisol di Desa Jalin Kecamatan Jantho Kabupaten Aceh Besar, dikarenakan belum adanya data dan informasi mengenai klasifikasi dan proses genesis yang terjadi pada tanah Ultisol yang terbentuk di desa Jalin Kecamatan Jantho Penelitian dilakukan dengan membuka profil tanah dan mengamati faktor morfologi dan mengambil sampel tanah untuk keperluan analisis laboratorium. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian tanah Ultisol di Desa Jalin Kecamatan Jantho terbentuk di atas formasi batuan Tuktp (Tertary III upper Keutapang) dengan jenis batuan Jenis batuan yang terdapat yaitu batu sedimen, batu pasir, batu gampingan, batu lanau dan batu gamping, yang terbentuk pada zaman kenozoikum periode pertengahan meiosen-pliosen, berumur antara 23,030 – 5,332 juta tahun yang lalu. Memiliki topografi landai >8%, dan tipe iklim C (agak basah), Adapun proses-proses genesis yang terjadi yaitu dekomposisi, braunifikasi, eluviasi, iluviasi dan hardening. Klasifikasi tanah Ultisol memiliki epipedon okhrik di karenakan horizon permukaan yang tipis karena yaitu 10 cm, walaupun kandungan bahan organik adalah 1,89%, warna tanah dengan nilai value dalam keadaan lembab sebesar 5, sedangkan nilai chroma dalam keadaan lembab sebesar 6. dan endopedon argilik karena memiliki memiliki horizon iluviasi apabila liat 15 – 40%, maka harus mengandung liat 1,2 kali lebih banyak dari horizon eluviasi. Kandungan liat eluviasi pada lokasi penelitian yaitu 11% dan horizon liat horizon iluviasi sebesar 23 dan 29%, kategori tingkat sub ordo: Aquult, kategori great group: Kandiaquult, kategori subgrup: Typic Kandiaquult, dan famili Typic Kandiaquult, berdebu halus, campuran, isohipertermik.

 

 Genesis and Classification of Ultisol soils in the dry

land of the district of Aceh Besar

Abstract. This study aims to determine the process of genesis and to classify Ultisol soil in Jalin Village, Jantho Subdistrict, Aceh Besar Regency, due to the absence of data and information regarding the classification and process of genesis that occurs in Ultisol soil formed in Jalin village, Jantho Subdistrict. The research was conducted by opening the soil profile and observing morphological factors and taking soil samples for laboratory analysis. Based on the results of Ultisol soil research in Jalin Village, Jantho Subdistrict, it was formed on the Tuktp (Tertary III upper Keutapang) rock formation with rock types. Types of rocks contained were sedimentary rocks, sandstone, limestone, siltstone and limestone formed in the Kenozoic era. the mid-meiocene-pliocene period, aged between 23,030 - 5,332 million years ago. It has a sloping topography> 8%, and climate type C (slightly wet). The genesis processes that occur are decomposition, braunification, eluviation, iluviation and hardening. Ultisol soil classification has an ochric epipedon because of the thin surface horizon because it is 10 cm, although the organic matter content is 1.89%, the color of the soil with a value in the humid state of 5, while the chroma value in the humid state of 6. and argillic endopedon because it has an iluviation horizon when clay is 15 - 40%, it must contain 1.2 times more clay than the eluviation horizon. The eluviation clay content at the study site was 11% and the horizon of the illuviation horizon was 23 and 29%, the sub-order level category: Aquult, great group category: Kandiaquult, subgroup category: Typic Kandiaquult, and Typic Kandiaquult family, fine dust, mixture, isohipertermic



Abstract.This study aims to determine the process of genesis and to classify Ultisol soil in Jalin Village, Jantho Subdistrict, Aceh Besar Regency, due to the absence of data and information regarding the classification and process of genesis that occurs in Ultisol soil formed in Jalin village, Jantho Subdistrict. The research was conducted by opening the soil profile and observing morphological factors and taking soil samples for laboratory analysis. Based on the results of Ultisol soil research in Jalin Village, Jantho Subdistrict, it was formed on the Tuktp (Tertary III upper Keutapang) rock formation with rock types. Types of rocks contained were sedimentary rocks, sandstone, limestone, siltstone and limestone formed in the Kenozoic era. the mid-meiocene-pliocene period, aged between 23,030 - 5,332 million years ago. It has a sloping topography> 8%, and climate type C (slightly wet). The genesis processes that occur are decomposition, braunification, eluviation, iluviation and hardening. Ultisol soil classification has an ochric epipedon because of the thin surface horizon because it is 10 cm, although the organic matter content is 1.89%, the color of the soil with a value in the humid state of 5, while the chroma value in the humid state of 6. and argillic endopedon because it has an iluviation horizon when clay is 15 - 40%, it must contain 1.2 times more clay than the eluviation horizon. The eluviation clay content at the study site was 11% and the horizon of the illuviation horizon was 23 and 29%, the sub-order level category: Aquult, great group category: Kandiaquult, subgroup category: Typic Kandiaquult, and Typic Kandiaquult family, fine dust, mixture, isohipertermic.

Keywords


Ultisol; genesis tanah; klasifikasi tanah; soil genesis; soil classification

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.17969/jimfp.v4i4.12686

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Alamat Tim Redaksi:
Fakultas Pertanian,Universitas Syiah Kuala
Jl. Tgk. Hasan Krueng Kalee No. 3, Kopelma Darussalam,
Banda Aceh, 23111, Indonesia.
Email:jimfp@unsyiah.ac.id